Three Merging Lineages of Personality Theory

Two main lineages of personality theory influenced LTOTM theory: the Jung/Myers/Keirsey 16 Psychological Types and the Plato/Keirsey 4 Temperaments. A third lineage, the Spranger/Bonstetter 6 Value Types, also directly related. Around 1970, David Keirsey mapped the 1900s psychological types to the c.750BC-c.190AD ancient temperaments.

Brian Lewis unified the three theories without mapping. Lewis created the 48 LTOTM Personality Types defined by temperament order and defined the Jung/Myers/Keirsey traits and Spranger/Bonstetter value types by temperament order.

Plato/Keirsey 4 Temperaments

Authors throughout history have illustrated the same four patterns of behavior. The contributors to temperament theory wrote stories, philosophy, psychology, medical texts and scientific theory about types of people. Below is a table of contributors with the main contributors and terms in bold. All temperament terms in this section are listed in respective order.

Temperament theory
Guardians (SJ)
Proprietary Sense
Artisans (SP)
Dynamic Impulse
Idealists (NF)
Perceptive Insight
Rationals (NT)
Logical Reason
Homer c.750BC
Prudence Wolf's Rage Noble Anger Reason
Hippocrates c.400BC
Black Bile (Melan Chole)
Earth Element
Blood (Haima)
Air Element
Yellow Bile (Chole)
Fire Element
Phlegm (Phlegma)
Water Element
Plato/Socrates c.380BC
Ancient Temperaments 
Material Things
Image Representations
Idea Forms
Mathimatical Objects
Gain-loving Victory-loving Wisdom-loving Wisdom-loving
Aristotle c.325BC
Ancient Temperaments
Aquiring Assets
Sensual Pleasure
Moral Virtue
Logical Investigation
Ptolemy c.100-178AD
Classical Astrology
(Earth Signs)
(Fire Signs)
(Water Signs)
(Air Signs)
Galen c.190AD
Classical Temperaments
Paracelsus c.1550
Elemental Spirits
Industrious Gnomes
(Earth Elementals)
Changeable Salamanders
(Fire Elementals)
Inspired Nymphs
(Water Elementals)
Curious Sylphs
(Air Elementals)
Tolstoy 1869
Form and Ceremony
Social Connections Understood Path Scientific Secrets
Baum 1900
Courage Heart Brains
Adickes 1905 Traditional Innovative Doctrinaire Skeptical
Kretschmer 1920
Character Styles
Jung 1921K Sensation
Myers & Briggs 1957 K
Trait Preferences
Observant (S) &
Scheduling (J)
Observant (S) &
Probing (P)
Intuitive (N) &
Friendly (F)
Intuitive (N) &
Tough-minded (T)
Keirsey 1970s-1998
Modern Temperaments
Guardians (SJ)
Artisans (SP)
Idealists (NF)
Rationals (NT)
Don Lowry 1978
Hartman 1987 Do-gooders
Fun lovers
Power wielders
Brownsword 1987 Traditionalists
Wriths/Bowman-Kruhm 1994 Members
Hermann 1996 Sequential
Kalil 1998 Conventional
Berens 2000 Stabilizer (SJ)
Improviser (SP)
Catalyst (NF)
Theorist (NT)
Lewis 2008-2011
Modern Temperaments
Proprietary Prudence
Report Traditionally
Cultural Duty
Dynamic Impulse
Sensorate Anecdotally
Hedonic Opportunity
Perceptual Insight
Hyperbolize Metaphorically
Spiritual Disharmony
Logical Reason
Deduce Categorically
Scientific Possibilities
K Keirsey mapped the Jung/Myers-Briggs trait combinations SJ, SP, NF and NT to temperament.

Since recorded history cultures around the world have personified natural events with human behavior. Ideas of physics mixed with personality trace back likely farther than the Enuma Elish 1800-1700BC, the Babylonian mythical creation story of sea, sky and earth. Cultures all over the world had different gods of nature with lavish personalities. Several cultures including native americans represented personality traits with animal metaphors. Early astrology associated some of the first personality types with the stars. The Greek poet Hesiod in Works and Days c700BC talked about metals in your soul determining character: iron, brass, gold and silver. Ancient India and Greece had the same four/five elements of matter—earth, fire, water, air and sometimes space. These ideas of elements were similar to the modern periodic table and phases of matter. The Hindu great elements (Sanskrit: mahabhuta) were associated with gods. Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) c.500BC said matter was made of tiny particles, and the elements (Pali: cattaro mahabhutani) were experiences of the senses. The Greek root elements (rhizomata) of nature and people are often attributed to the philosopher Empedocles c.450BC. Hippocrates c.400BC associated the Greek classical elements with his bodily fluids of behavior and disease. Ptolemy, a Roman citizen of Egypt, astrologer, natural philosopher and member of Alexandria's Greek society, in his four books Tetrabiblos c.100-178AD, mapped the Greek classical elements to the western astrological signs—earth (Capricorn, Taurus, Virgo), fire (Aries, Leo, Sagittarius), water (Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces) and air (Libra, Aquarius, Gemini)—with personalities that were—reliable, energetic, emotional and intellectual. In Liber de nymphis, sylphis, pygmaeis et salamandris et de caeteris spiritibus in c.1550, Renaissance physician Paracelsus described spirits relating to the classical elements, the—industrious/guarded gnomes (earth elementals), changeable/impulsive salamanders (fire elementals), inspired/passionate nymphs (water elementals) and curious/calm sylphs (air elementals).

Writers from ancient Greece to present have developed characters with the four temperament characteristics. The Greek epic poem Iliad, probably composed by Homer c.750BC or earlier, was about anger, dramatizing—prudence, wolf's rage (lyssa), noble anger (menos) and good reason. In War and Peace 1869, Russian writer Leo Tolstoy separated the Freemasons into four classes, those interested in—external form and ceremony, social connections, a fully understood path for themselves or scientific secrets of the order. In Lyman Frank Baum's children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz 1900, the four main characters—Dorothy, the Cowardly Lion, the Tin Woodman and the Scarecrow—seek out the wizard of Oz in search of—security, courage, heart and brains. Darren Star's TV Series Sex and The City 1998, based partially on Candace Bushnell's book, contrasts four characters—traditional Charlotte, ballsy Samantha, caring Carrie and intellectual Miranda.

Hippocrates, the Greek physician well know for the Hippocratic Oath, wrote On The Sacred Disease c.400BC. He proposed four bodily fluids called humors (chymos) that affect behavior and disease—black bile (melan chole), blood (haima) (Latin: sanguis), yellow bile (chole) and phlegm (phlegma). Hippocrates c.400BC associated the Greek classical elements—earth, air, fire and water—with the humors based on the physical properties—dry & cold, wet & hot, hot & dry and cold & wet. These classical temperaments gained literary popularity from the Renaissance to present day. The ancient Roman physician Galen, c.190AD, expanded the ideas of Hippocrates and created the four proportions (temperamentum) relating to disease and personality—gloomy (melancholic), optimistic (sanguine), irritable (choleric) and calm (phlegmatic). Ernst Kretschmer in Physique and Character 1920 defined ranges of character styles, two Schizoids—Hyperesthetic (melancholic) and Anesthetic (excited)—and two Cycloids—Depressive (sensitive) and Hypomanic (cold). The Hippocrates/Galen classical temperaments have appeared in liturature to current day.

Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, wrote dialogues about human nature in the Republic c.380BC. At the end of Book VI and beginning of Book VII were Plato's "divided line" and Plato's "cave", his analogies of human perception. He described the two visible classes of opinion—material things and image representations (eikones)—and two intelligible classes of knowledge—higher idea forms (eide) and mathematical objects (mathematica)—he related four affections to them—trust (pistis), conjecture (eikasia), understanding (noesis) and thinking (dianoia). David Keirsey shows that throughout the Republic Plato described how people—guardian (pistic), artisan (iconic), idealist (noetic) and rational (dianoetic)—would contribute to an ideal society serving the roles of—care-taking, art-making, virtues and calculations. Plato, in Book V, said that women and men have the same natures, despite sexual differences and social reputation. In Book IX Plato responds to the popular categories of politcal behavior, maybe of Herodotus, narrowing the primary categories to—gain-loving, victory-loving, and wisdom-loving (philosopher). Plato mentioned the poems of Homer and uses the Iliad wolf metaphor for tyrannical behavior in Book VIII. In Books II, III and VIII Plato references Hesiod and his races of men—iron, bronze, gold and silver—talking about quality of charcter but refuting the idea of metals in soul. Also in book VIII Plato talks about tyranical government having disease like the phlegm and bile of his contemporary Hippocrates. Plato's teacher Socrates is the main character in the Republic dialogues, possibly with his actual quotes or interpretations of them. Plato's student Aristotle, c.325BC, described four groups of people—proprietary (propraietari), hedonic (hedone), ethical (ethikos) and dialectical (dialogike)—being made happy by—acquiring assets, sensual pleasure, moral virtue and logical investigation. The Plato/Aristotle ancient temperaments lost popular usage until David Keirsey reintroduced their work in 1984.

David Keirsey, in the early 1970s, termed temperament intelligence—logistical, tactical, diplomatic, strategic. His originally named the temperaments—Dionysian, Epimethean, Apollonian and Promethean—then renamed them using Plato's names in 1987—Guardian, Artisan, Idealist and Rational. Keirsey saw that Kretschmer's character styles matched Galen's temperaments. Keirsey defined temperament intelligence as observable human behavior, based on "Concrete" versus "Abstract" use of words and "Cooperative" versus "Utilitarian" use of tools. He categorized temperament behavior in all areas of life and organized a large matrix of traits. David Keirsey did extensive research in the fields of temperament and personality. He was the first to compile a list of thinkers with similar four groups, from ancient Greece to the present, starting with: Hippocrates c.390BC, Plato c.380BC, Aristotle c.325BC and Galen c.190AD. From the Renaissance era forward Keirsey listed many authors that referenced the Hippocrates's humors or Galen's temperaments including: Geoffrey Chaucer c.1380, Paracelsus c.1550, Montaigne 1580, Shakespeare c.1580, Bruno c.1585, Ben Jonson 1599, William Harvey 1628, Voltaire c.1733, Hume c.1740, Rousseau c.1754, Kant c.1746, Tolstoy 1869 and D.H. Lawrence 1913. Keisey listed 19th century authors that framed their characters in these groups: Jane Austin, Brontes, George Elliot, Lyman Frank Baum and Tolstoy. Keirsey named theorists that began developing new behavioral groups analogous to the four temperaments soon after, including: Adickes 1905, Spranger 1914, Kretschmer 1920, Dreikurs 1947 and Fromm 1947. Keirsey began his research on human behavior in 1940 and began practicing his theory as an educational psychologist in 1950. In the early 1970’s Keirsey introduced his theory as an educational curriculum at California State University. Keirsey worked with Marilyn Bates on his first book on temperament Please Understand Me in 1984, which featured mapping temperament groups to the Jung/Myers/Keirsey personality types. Keirsey's Portraits of Temperament in 1987 used Plato's names—Guardians, Artisans, Idealists and Rationals. Keirsey released Please Understand Me II in 1998 with a historical chart of contributors on page 26 and a matrix of temperament traits on page 62. Please Understand Me II included the Keirsey Temperament Sorter®-II (KTS®-II) personality test, which sorts personality type based on the Jung/Myers-Briggs trait-pairs (, or Please Understand Me II pgs. 4-11). Keirsey also created The Keirsey FourTypes Sorter for discovering your temperament (Please Understand Me II, pages 348-350).

Several authors have followed Keirsey with similar groups, nicknames or metaphors, including: Don Lowry's True Colors 1978 laid out groups labeled by color—Gold (Responsible), Red (Adventurous), Blue (Harmonious) and Green (Curious). Hartman's 1987 The Color Code used different colors in a similar way—Blue (do-gooders), Yellow (fun lovers), White (peacekeepers) and Red (power wielders); Brownsword 1987 It Takes All Types—Traditionalists, Troubleshooters, Catalysts and Visionaries; Wriths/Bowman-Kruhm 1994 I Need to Get Along with Different Types of People—Members, Actors, Friends and Thinkers; Ned Hermann's 1996 The Whole Brain Business Book—Sequential, Interpersonal, Imaginative and Analytical; Kalil 1998 Follow Your True Colors to the Work You Love—Conventional, Courageous, Compassionate and Conceptual; Linda V. Berens's 2000 Understanding Yourself and Others An Introduction to Temperament 2.0—Stabilizer, Improviser, Catalyst and Theorist. Berens was a student of Keirsey.

Brian Lewis kept the Plato/Keirsey names for the temperaments in LTO theory, added new observable behavior terminology, and developed 48 new personality types based on temperament order.

Jung/Myers/Keirsey 16 Psychological Types

Below is a table of the main contributors to The 48 LTO Personality Types.

Type theory 1921-Present
Jung 1921
Introverted, Extroverted - (Attitude-Types)
Sensation, Intuition, Feeling, Thinking - (Thought Function-Types)
Myers & Briggs 1957
16 Types by Trait Preferences 
Judging, Perceiving
I/E – Introverted/Extroverted (Reserved/Expressive)
S/N – Sensation/Intuition (Observant/Intraspective)
F/T – Feeling/Thinking (Friendly/Tough-minded)
J/P – Judging/Perceiving (Scheduling/Probing)
Keirsey 1988-1998
4 Temperaments by Observable Behavior
16 Types by Trait Preferences 
Types Mapped to Temperaments 
Guardians (SJ):  Protector (ISFJ)
Inspector (ISTJ)
Provider (ESFJ)
Supervisor (ESTJ)
Artisans (SP):  Composer (ISFP)
Crafter (ISTP)
Performer (ESFP)
Promoter (ESTP)
Idealists (NF):  Counselor (INFJ)
Healer (INFP)
Teacher (ENFJ)
Champion (ENFP)
Rationals (NT):  Mastermind (INTJ)
Architect (INTP)
Field Marshal (ENTJ)
Inventor (ENTP)
Lewis 2008
4 Temperaments by Observable Behavior
48 LTO Types by Observable Behavior 
Types Defined by Temperament Order 
Intragating/Extragating (I/E) - Replaces Introverted/Extroverted
Guardians (g):  Preparer (ISFJ.gair), Provisioner (ISFJ.giar), Nurturer (ISFJ.gira)
Examiner (ISTJ.gari), InspectorK (ISTJ.grai), Investigator (ISTJ.gria)
Keeper (ESFJ.gair), Caretaker (ESFJ.giar), ProviderK (ESFJ.gira)
Manager (ESTJ.gari), Administrator (ESTJ.grai), SupervisorK (ESTJ.gria)
Artisans (a):  Fashioner (ISFP.agir), Styler (ISFP.aigr), Depictor (ISFP.airg)
CrafterK (ISTP.agri), Builder (ISTP.argi), Constructor (ISTP.arig)
PerformerK (ESFP.agir), Entertainer (ESFP.aigr), Portrayer (ESFP.airg)
PromoterK (ESTP.agri), Marketer (ESTP.argi), Enterpriser (ESTP.arig)
Idealists (i):  CounselorK (INFJ.igar), Mentor (INFJ.igra), Advisor (INFJ.irga)
Illustrator (INFP.iagr), ComposerK (INFP.iarg), Philosopher (INFP.irag)
TeacherK (ENFJ.igar), Educator (ENFJ.igra), Director (ENFJ.irga)
ChampionK (ENFP.iagr), Advocate (ENFP.iarg), Reformer (ENFP.irag)
Rationals (r):  Evaluator (INTJ.rgai), Analyzer (INTJ.rgia), Methodizer (INTJ.riga)
Modeler (INTP.ragi), Drafter (INTP.raig), Theorist (INTP.riag)
Mobilizer (ENTJ.rgai), Commander (ENTJ.rgia), MarshalerK (ENTJ.riga)
Prototyper (ENTP.ragi), Deviser (ENTP.raig), InventorK (ENTP.riag)
K These Lewis verb-based names were adopted from Keirsey's 16 type names. Keirsey's Artisan name Composer was moved to Idealist.

Scrolling down the chart you can see the development from thought functions, to traits, to code letter types, to named types mapped to temperament. Lewis's 48 LTO types look similar but they are very different. The old traits and mapping are not used. I/E is redefined as Intragating/Extragating, and each LTO type is defined by temperament order. For the Theorist (INTP.riag): "I" denotes Intragating; ".riag" denotes the temperament order Rational, Idealist, Artisan then Guardian; I.riag would be a full representation but "NTP" are kept for historical reference and mapping. The Theorist (INTP.riag) has Rational first so it belongs to the Rationals temperament, note also the unused "NT" is Keirsey's trait mapping for Rationals. It worked out that each old type still maps perfectly. There are three new LTO types for each old type. For example, the old ESFJ maps to: Keeper (ESFJ.gair), Caretaker (ESFJ.giar), Provider (ESFJ.gira). Each old trait has a new LTO definition dictating this mapping covered in the section Jung/Myers-Briggs Letters and Temperament Order.

Carl Jung, in Psychological Types section 10. General Description of the Types, 1921, termed the two metaphorical "attitude-types"—Extroverted and Introverted; and the four metaphorical thought "function-types"—Feeling, Thinking, Sensation, Intuition. Jung's combinations of these made up his eight types—Extroverted Sensation, Introverted Sensation, Extroverted Intuition, Introverted Intuition, Extroverted Thinking, Introverted Thinking, Extroverted Feeling, Introverted Feeling.

Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother Katherine Cook Briggs wrote Some Findings with Regard to Type, 1957 and Manual for the Myers Briggs Type Indicator, 1962. They added Judging and Perceiving to Jung's traits, paired the traits, calling them "preferences" and assigned a code letter to each—Introverted/Extroverted (I/E), Judging/Perceiving (J/P), Feeling/Thinking (F/T), Sensation/Intuition (S/N). Myers & Briggs added new descriptions for the the trait-pairs—Reserved/Expressive (I/E), Scheduling/Probing (J/P), Friendly/Tough-minded (F/T), Observant/Intraspective (S/N). In 4-letter combinations, these paired traits made the 16 Myers/Briggs Personality Types-ENFJ, ESFJ, ENTJ, ESTJ, ENFP, ESFP, ENTP, ESTP, INFJ, ISFJ, INTJ, ISTJ, INFP, ISFP, INTP, ISTP. Myers & Briggs wrote lengthy descriptions for the individually lettered traits and certain trait-pair combinations. Myers & Briggs created the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) personality test in 1942 ( Myers book, Gifts Differing 1980, included collected type indicator data and life advice, accompanied by expanded descriptions of the traits.

David Keirsey expanded on the 16 Myers/Briggs personality types. He wrote a character sketch description for each personality type and gave each one a self-descriptive name—Teacher (ENFJ), Provider (ESFJ), Field Marshal (ENTJ), Supervisor (ESTJ), Champion (ENFP), Performer (ESFP), Inventor (ENTP), Promoter (ESTP), Counselor (INFJ), Protector (ISFJ), Mastermind (INTJ), Inspector (ISTJ), Healer (INFP), Composer (ISFP), Architect (INTP), Crafter (ISTP). Keirsey mapped the Jung/Myers-Briggs trait-pairs to the four Plato/Keirsey temperaments—Observant & Scheduling (SJ), Observant & Probing (SP), Intraspective & Friendly (NF), Intraspective & Tough-minded (NT)—mapping to—Guardian (SJ), Artisan (SP), Idealist (NF), Rational (NT), respectively. Keirsey combined the two lineages of personality theory by mapping certain Jung/Myers-Briggs trait-pair code letters to each Plato/Galen temperament. He mapped the following code letters in parentheses to the temperaments—Guardians (SJ), Artisans (SP), Idealists (NF), Rationals (NT). So there were four different Jung/Myers-Briggs/Keirsey personality types to each of the Plato/Keirsey temperaments.

Brian Lewis discarded the old types and defined 48 new LTO types each defined by temperament order. He added new observable behavior terminology for the temperaments, and gave verb-based names to the LTO types. This made the types observable, much easier to distinguish, and accurate to 1-out-of-48 instead of 16. Lewis defined the Jung/Myers/Keirsey traits in terms of temperament order allowing mapping between the old and new types. He kept as much previous terminology as possible for historical reference and mapping.

Jung/Myers-Briggs Letters and Temperament Order

Below are the trait pairs and new definitions for the Jung/Myers-Briggs trait letters in terms of temperament order. The pair I/E is still core to LTO theory, but redefined as Intragating/Extragating. This eliminates fuzzy definitions and switches to observable verb-based terminology. The other traits are unused in the 48 LTO types, but kept for mapping and historical reference. The LTO types are organized relative to the Jung/Myers-Briggs letters on the LTO role wheels.

I: IntrovertedJ (Reserved) E: ExtrovertedJ (Expressive)
S: SensoryJ (Observant) N: IntuitiveJ (Intraspective)
F: FeelingJ (Friendly) T: ThinkingJ (Tough-minded) 
J: Judging (Scheduling) P: Perceiving (Probing)
J These terms were intruduced by Jung, all other terms and code letters were introduced by Myers & Briggs.

I: Introverted (Reserved) - Means that Intragating is before Extragating in the temperament order. Intragating/Extragating are the two expressivities, separate from the four temperaments, but considered part of temperament order. The I types make up both the Organizers (IJ) and Designers (IP) LTO role wheels.

E: Extroverted (Expressive) - Means that Extragating is before Intragating in the temperament order. Intragating/Extragating are the two expressivities, separate from the four temperaments, but considered part of temperament order. The E types make up both the Instructors (EJ) and Motivators (EP) LTO role wheels.

J: Judging (Scheduling) - Means that Guardian is before Artisan in the temperament order. J relates strongly to Guardians and their Proprietary Sense. The J types make up both the Instructors (EJ) and Organizers (IJ) LTO role wheels.

P: Perceiving (Probing) - Means that Artisan is before Guardian in the temperament order. P relates strongly to Artisans and their Dynamic Impulse. The P types make up both the Motivators (EP) and Designers (IP) LTO role wheels.

F: Feeling (Friendly) - Means that Idealist is before Rational in the temperament order. F relates strongly to Idealists and their Perceptual Insight. The F types are located on the left halves of all four LTO role wheels.

T: Thinking (Tough-minded) - Means that Rational is before Idealist in the temperament order. T relates strongly to Rationals and their Logical Reason. The T types are located on the right halves of all four LTO role wheels.

S: Sensory (Observant) - Means that either Artisan or Guardian is first in the temperament order. S groups together Guardian and Artisan, the two concrete/temporal temperaments. The S types, Guardians (SJ) and Artisans (SP), are located on the bottom halves of the LTO role wheels.

N: Intuitive (Intraspective) - Means that either Rational or Idealist is first in the temperament order. N groups together Idealist and Rational, the two abstract/conceptual temperaments. The N types, Idealists (NF) and Rationals (NT), are located on the top halves of the LTO role wheels.

For example, ESTJ means: Extragating before Intragating, Artisan or Guardian first, Rational before Idealist and Guardian before Artisan. The SJ combination (Artisan or Guardian first, and Guardian before Artisan) means Guardian is first. With Extragating and Guardian first, the T allows for three juxtapositions of Rational before Idealist: E.gari, E.grai and E.gria; so ESTJ maps to the three LTO types: Manager (ESTJ.gari), Administrator (ESTJ.grai) and Supervisor (ESTJ.gria). The Jung/Myers/Keirsey 16 types map perfectly to the 48 LTO types in this way. Similarly, Keirseys combinations SJ, SP, NF and NT mean Guardian, Artisan, Idealist or Rational is first in the temperament order respectively.

E.gari (Extragating - Guardian, Artisan, Rational then Idealist) is a complete definition of temperament order. The unused letters in ESTJ.gari are kept for recognizing the related ESTJ Jung/Myers/Keirsey type, and Keirsey's Guardian (SJ) temperament mapping.

Spranger/Bonstetter 6 Value Types

Eduard Spranger had six personality categories in Life Forms (German: Lebensformen) 1914, translated by Pigors as Types of Men 1928. Keirsey in Please Understand Me II 1998 pg. 26 mapped four of the six to temperament—Economic, Aesthetic, Religious and Theoretic—and not Political and Social. All six map to the temperament similarity pairs in LTO theory, which include Keirsey's word or tool usage: Concrete versus Abstract and Cooperative versus Utilitarian. The the 16 Myers-Briggs types do not map well to Spranger types, but eight LTO types fit each Spranger type using their first two temperaments. Gordon Allport and his two partners created Allport Vernon Lindzey Study of Values in 1956. Allport renamed Political to Individualistic. Bonnstetter expanded on the types and created the Personal Interests and Values assessment in 1990. He renamed it Attitudes and Values in 2006, then created Motivation Insights in 2003. Bonnstetter renamed Religious to Traditional and Economic to Utilitarian.

Keirsey 1998: Spranger Value Types & Temperament
Economic Aesthetic Religious Theoretic
Guardians (SJ)
Artisans (SP)
Idealits (NF)
Rationals (NT)
Keirsey did not map Political and Social to temperament.
Lewis 2011: Spranger/Allport/Bonstetter Value Types & Temperament
Spranger Types Allport/Bonstetter LTO Temperament Pairs
Aesthetic: (form)
Theoretic (discovery)
Aesthetic: (impressions)
Theoretic: (knowledge)

Guardian & Artisan (ConcreteK)
Idealist & Rational (AbstractK)
Religious (unity)
Economic (utility)
Traditional (meaning)
Utilitarian (resources)

Guardian & Idealist (CooperativeK)
Artisan & Rational (UtilitarianK)
Social (philanthropy)
Political (power)
Social (potential)
Indivisualistic (positions)

Artisan & Idealist (Whimsical)
Guardian & Rational (Ordered)

Lewis 2009: LTO Temperament Pairs & Types
Guardian & Artisan
Preparer (ISFJ.gair)
Examiner (ISTJ.gari)
Keeper (ESFJ.gair)
Manager (ESTJ.gari)
Fashioner (ISFP.agir)
CrafterK (ISTP.agri)
PerformerK (ESFP.agir)
PromoterK (ESTP.agri)
Idealist & Rational
Advisor (INFJ.irga)
Philosopher (INFP.irag)

Director (ENFJ.irga)
Reformer (ENFP.irag)

Methodizer (INTJ.riga)
Theorist (INTP.riag)
MarshalerK (ENTJ.riga)
InventorK (ENTP.riag)
Guardian & Idealist
Provisioner (ISFJ.giar)
Nurturer (ISFJ.gira)
Caretaker (ESFJ.giar)
ProviderK (ESFJ.gira)
CounselorK (INFJ.igar)
Mentor (INFJ.igra)
TeacherK (ENFJ.igar)
Educator (ENFJ.igra)
Artisan & Rational
Builder (ISTP.argi)
Constructor (ISTP.arig)
Marketer (ESTP.argi)
Enterpriser (ESTP.arig)
Modeler (INTP.ragi)
Drafter (INTP.raig)
Prototyper (ENTP.ragi)
Deviser (ENTP.raig)
Artisan & Idealist
Styler (ISFP.aigr)
Depictor (ISFP.airg)

Entertainer (ESFP.aigr)
Portrayer (ESFP.airg)
Illustrator (INFP.iagr)
ComposerK (INFP.iarg)
ChampionK (ENFP.iagr)
Advocate (ENFP.iarg)
Guardian & Rational
InspectorK (ISTJ.grai)
Investigator (ISTJ.gria)
Administrator (ESTJ.grai)
Evaluator (INTJ.rgai)
Analyzer (INTJ.rgia)
Mobilizer (ENTJ.rgai)
Commander (ENTJ.rgia)

L Keirsey uses logistical for Guardians. Lewis uses logisitcal as a combination of proprietary sense and logical reason (Guardian & Rational).
K Marked verb-based Lewis names were adopted from Keirsey's 16 type names. Keirsey's Artisan name Composer was moved to Idealist. Keirsey's observable word or tool usage temperament similarities:Concrete versus Abstract and Cooperative versus Utilitarian.

Other Personality Theories

There are several other personality theories that have provided inspiration and interest in the subject, although are not contributors to LTO theory.

Astrology is an ancient belief that celestial bodies are interconnected with human life experience. Western and eastern astrologies contain some of the oldest personality descriptions. Many modern zodiacs include 12 signs with personality type descriptions. The personality descriptions in astrology can be life-like, depending on the version you see. In western astrology, Ptolemy grouped the signs by element—earth, fire, water and air—which can be related to temperament. Dispite any similarities to LTO theory, astrology it is not a direct contributor. It may have influenced many contributors. LTO theory categorizes observable behavior; it does not address origins of behavior, future events or the the cosmos. LTO theory does not conflict or relate at all with many core beliefs of astrology. The idea that every person born within the same year-long or month-long period has the same basic personality type is completely inaccurate. Astrology does not seem able to accurately relate its personality types to the correct individuals. Similarities can be drawn between popular astrology personality descriptions and LTO types, but any mapping would be rough.

Type A / Type B theory c.1955 was introduced cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Mike Jordan. It's a theory of two groups, similar to, but not mappable to, Extrovert/Introvert. It has very limited scope and precision. It not used in newer personality theories and has been abandoned by the medical profession as well.

DISC Inventory by Geier 1958 and Martson 1928, is a four group system. It maps reasonably well to specific temperament combinations: Steadiness (Guardian/Idealist), Conscientious (Guardian/Rational), Influence (Artisan/Idealist), Dominance (Artisan/Rational). It doesn't address all similar patterns, so it can't be fully mapped or included as a contributor to temperament theory.

Big 5 Personality Traits, of which Lewis Goldberg is main contributor c.1990, is the most important of the non-contributing theories because of it's scientific/empirical data collection methods. The Big 5 factors are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (OCEAN). They map loosely to temperament—conscientiousness (Guardian), extraversion (Artisan), agreeableness (Idealist), openness (Rational)—with neuroticism as a measure of stress related to the other four. Big 5 extraversion fits Artisan well and has some similarity to Jung/Myers extrovert/introvert. Big 5 definitions of openness are a combination of Rational and non-Guardian, a decent fit. It is popular with personality theorists. It's main shortcoming is little theoretical basis, excellent clarity and separation of facets, but fuzzy top level categories. It gets some criticism for empirical inconsistency though it is the leader in the shift from metaphorical psychology to empirical science.

Social/Interaction Styles are groupings of people-orientation versus task-orientation, mainly focused on interactions at work. There are three main authors with the same basic groupings. David Merrill 1999 Personal Styles & Effective Performance, Kerisey 2008 Brains and Careers, Linda V. Berens 2008 Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to Interaction Styles - 2.0. Each of these systems are Whimsical (Artisan & Idealist) versus Ordered (Guardian & Rational) traits crossed with Extrovert/Introvert traits. Merrill makes a simple cross of the traits. Keirsey makes a complicated mapping of Myers types per temperament where P & F (Artisan & Idealist) traits from each temperament are people-oriented and J & T (Guardian & Rational) traits are task-oriented. Barens uses the same mapping as Keirsey with different naming. Barens also changes the mapping of the classical temperaments—melancholic, sanguine, choleric and phlegmatic—away from the temperaments, and maps them to the new people/task-orientation groups. These groupings are limiting. Myers types without temperament order do not map well.

Personality theory registered copyright © 2008 Brian Lewis, under the unpublished title Knowing Your Role, all rights reserved.
LTO, Lewis Temperament Order and Temperament Order are a trademarks of Brian Lewis 2008.
All website content copyright © Brian Lewis 2019, all rights reserved.