The 4 Temperaments

The four behavioral patterns that everyone has followed throughout history.
Understand The 4 Temperaments...


The 48 LTOTM Types

Personality types are no longer complicated or inaccurate. Understand and appreciate everyone just by putting their 4 Temperaments in order.
See the 48 LTO Personality Types...


Personality History

Around 1970, David Keirsey mapped 1900s personality types to the c.750BC-c.190AD ancient temperaments. In 2008, Brian Lewis defined personality types by temperament order, without mapping, finally unifying temperament and personality theories.
Read the merging histories of personality...

personality history

LTOTM Personality Test

The LTOTM Personality Test is being designed as a more precise comprehensive evaluation of personality. This online exam will indicate your personality to one of 48 LTOTM personality types. The LTOTM types map directly to earlier types so you will know your Myers-Briggs/Keirsey, Jungian and Spranger/Bonnstetter types as well. This also means the previous personality tests are still useful, even if less comprehensive.

Coming soon...

Lewis Temperament Order

LTOTM Personality Types & Temperament

LTOTM is the most accurate and helpful system of personality types. Brian Lewis fully unified Jung/Myers type theory and Plato/Keirsey temperament theory, with 48 new LTOTM personality types defined by temperament order, without mapping. The temperaments Guardian, Artisan, Idealist and Rational and Intragating/Extragating combined to make the 48 LTOTM types.

People and Their Differences

One of my greatest realizations about people is that we all seem to be inclined towards a few very similar ideas about others, "If they were like me, life would be so much easier," and, "Why don't they see things the right way." If someone else does something differently, or thinks about something differently, our automatic response is, "They are just wrong." And from within one person's own point-of-view that kind of thinking is easy to defend. Assuming that another person held the same things as most important, was aware of the same information, had the same strengths, and followed the same pattern of behavior, then yes, they could simply be wrong.

But what if people hold different goals as most important? What if people have different awareness of their world and of themselves? What if people have different strengths and weaknesses? What if people have different wants and follow different drives? What if people have different gifts to contribute to the world? What if people think and feel differently? What if people are simply different?

Seeing yourself as right makes it easy to see others as wrong. It is easy to look out at others as irresponsible, boring, mean or stupid. It is easy to ignore others' strengths and gifts, and see only where they lack yours. It is easy miss what others hold as most important, and see them as failing to achieve what is most important to you. It is easy to revel in our own strengths, and not appreciate the strengths of others. What is difficult is to become aware, to discover our own weaknesses, to realize our limitations, and to understand the gifts of others; not to condemn others for what they are not, but to appreciate them for what they are.

We must all learn that trying to change others into copies of ourselves is not the path to better relationships or a better world. Each way of living contributes an important factor to society. Each type of person plays an important role in our daily lives and in the great scheme of civilization. People do not change, and it is a good thing that they don't. Each type of person is not only OK, they are necessary. Every unique way of seeing the world and every differing set of strengths is what has allowed humanity and civilization to become what it is today. This kind of acceptance is difficult for us all. How understanding and appreciative we are of others—especially those with behavior different from our own—is a great measure of the quality of our own character.

-Brian Lewis


External Personality Links

Personality Zone
Personality Page
Personality Theories
Wikipedia: Personality Types
Wikipedia: Four Temperaments
HumanMetrics Personality Tests
Socionics Personality Tests

Personality theory registered copyright © 2008 Brian Lewis, under the unpublished title Knowing Your Role, all rights reserved.
LTOTM, Lewis Temperament OrderTM and Temperament OrderTM are a trademarks of Brian Lewis 2008.
All website content copyright © Brian Lewis 2020, all rights reserved.